Biology a2 yeast respiration coursework

Dolly the sheep was cloned by taking udder cells from a donor sheep. These cells were than cultured in a low nutrient medium to make the genes switch off and become dormant. Then an unfertilized egg was taken from another sheep. The nucleus of this egg cell was removed by using a micropipette and then the egg cells were fused with the udder cells using a pulse of electricity. The fused cells developed like normal zygotes and became embryos. These embryos were then implanted into another sheep who’s role was to be the surrogate mother. One lamb was born successfully and called Dolly. Dolly was genetically identical to the sheep from which the udder cells were taken.

Even though the ribosomes are usually considered accurate and processive machines, the translation process is subject to errors that can lead either to the synthesis of erroneous proteins or to the premature abandonment of translation. The rate of error in synthesizing proteins has been estimated to be between 1/10 5 and 1/10 3 misincorporated amino acids, depending on the experimental conditions. [7] The rate of premature translation abandonment, instead, has been estimated to be of the order of magnitude of 10 −4 events per translated codon. [8] The correct amino acid is covalently bonded to the correct transfer RNA (tRNA) by amino acyl transferases. The amino acid is joined by its carboxyl group to the 3' OH of the tRNA by an ester bond . When the tRNA has an amino acid linked to it, the tRNA is termed "charged". Initiation involves the small subunit of the ribosome binding to the 5' end of mRNA with the help of initiation factors (IF). Termination of the polypeptide happens when the A site of the ribosome faces a stop codon (UAA, UAG, or UGA) on the mRNA. tRNA usually cannot recognize or bind to stop codons. Instead, the stop codon induces the binding of a release factor protein that prompts the disassembly of the entire ribosome/mRNA complex and the hydrolysis and the release of the polypeptide chain from the ribosome. Drugs or special sequence motifs on the mRNA can change the ribosomal structure so that near-cognate tRNAs are bound to the stop codon instead of the release factors. In such cases of 'translational readthrough', translation continues until the ribosome encounters the next stop codon. [9]

Biology a2 yeast respiration coursework

biology a2 yeast respiration coursework


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